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    Female Earning Power

    Sep 3 • Businesses, Gender Issues, Households, Labor • 666 Views

    Which women earn more than men?

    If you are female, in your 20s, childless, unmarrried, live in a city, and a college graduate, there is a good chance that you earn more than a man in your peer group. You also represent a major change in what women earn. For decades (and before), the average working woman in the U.S. has earned less than the average working man–recently, close to 20% less.

    Now, according the the Census Bureau, young women are pulling ahead because of the structural shift in the economy. A knowledge based economy with less manufacturing fuels female earnings. Also, because female minorities are more likely to attend college than their male counterparts, they earn more.

    20 years from now, what will we see because of this earnings shift? Your comments?

    The Economic Lesson

    According to Harvard economist Claudia Goldin, the gender gap refers to labor market differences between men and women that relate to types of occupations, pay, and participation rates.


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    More Fashion Rules

    Sep 2 • Economic History • 589 Views

    Are fashion copycats good or bad for the industry? N.Y. Senator Charles Schumer says, “Bad” and is proposing legislation that would provide a 3 year period during which, with certain exceptions, knock-offs would represent copyright infringement. Others, though, say that fashion copies are beneficial as a source of trends and innovation.

    The issue of copyright protection for fashion is a part of a much bigger debate. Do you believe, for example, that Amazon should have an exclusive, government protected right to “one-click shopping“?

    The Economic Lesson

    When Alexander Hamilton was concerned with protecting infant industries in a very young United States, he and James Madison supported a patent system that served a specific economic purpose. By contrast, Thomas Jefferson, himself a inventor, said that Congress should not “meddle” with “matters of invention”.

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    Unemployment Benefits or Losses?

    Sep 1 • Economic Debates, Government, Labor • 373 Views

    Recently, Denmark decided that 4 years of unemployment benefits were too long. Shrinking their duration to 2 years, they said that 1) the longer people are out of a job, the harder it is to find one and 2) too many people wait for benefits to expire before they decide to work again.

    Does Denmark’s decision relate to the U.S.? According to Harvard economist, Robert Barro “Yes.” Responding to Congress’s recent extension of unemployment benefits to 99 weeks, he says that the U.S. would have lower unemployment if benefits are not extended. By contrast, presenting “a chart that screams ‘Extend Unemployment Benefits,'” Berkeley economist Brad DeLong disagrees.

    The Economic Lesson

    A slate journalist says that the unemployment benefits debate is actually between those who believe unemployment is primarily cyclical and those who say it is structural.

    The cyclical advocates say that the current econmic contraction is the source of the high unemployment numbers. Consequently, more government spending would be appropriate.

    By contrast, structural unemployment refers to a permanent shift in economic production. For example, when we moved from typewriters to computers, we had a structural shift which temporarily created a mismatch between skills and new jobs. Structural believers do not believe that government necessarily has the answer through its current recession response.

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    How Not To Price a House

    Aug 31 • Behavioral Economics, Demand, Supply, and Markets, Households • 455 Views

    Let’s assume you would like to sell your house. According to Wired journalist Jonah Lehrer, the price you select might not be optimal. Why? Because we like to avoid losing money. (Of course, you might say, that is obvious. But an economist would suggest that a rational person would grasp the reality of the current housing market.)

    People who purchased homes during the housing bubble probably paid much more for them than their current market value. According to Lehrer, these people have a tendency to price their homes much higher than others who made housing purchases after the height of the housing bubble. The reason is “loss aversion”. Only when houses are more realistically priced will the housing market recover.

    The Economic Lesson

    Loss aversion was first identified by economics Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman (a psychologist) and Amos Tversky during the 1970s. In one experiment they gave subjects two sets of alternatives. Worded differently, both actually were identical. However, for the first pair, option “A” said out of 600 people, 200 will be saved. With the second pair, the first option said that out of 600 people, 400 will die. Presented the first pair, people chose “A”. However, for the second pair they rejected that first option. According to Kahneman and Tversky, “losses loom larger than gains” and people are not always the rational decision makers that classical economists cite.

    Loss aversion can also explain most investors’ behavior when faced with a losing investment. It also can explain capuchin monkey behavior.


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  • Cost Measured by Work Minutes

    Aug 31 • Households, Macroeconomic Measurement • 471 Views

    Having referred to a $40 1970s airline ticket, I was curious about other prices 35 years ago. Not everything was cheaper.

    (According to the Dallas Fed, in 1974, a 1 ounce bag of chips was approximately 25 cents, and in 1980, a large pepperoni pizza averaged $7.99.)

    But, having pondered prices, the Fed said, instead of comparing prices, look at work minutes.

    Deflation discussio

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