Reading about US income mobility, I recalled what fractal mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot said about the British coastline. While from a distance it will appear straight, the closer you look, the more you see its indents and zigzags. Consequently, Dr.
Competing against Paris, Madrid, Moscow and London for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, NYC made it to the second round and then joined Moscow when it was cut. Next, Madrid was eliminated, then Paris, and London remained. Was winning worth it? It depends.